The Life And Death Of Steven Biko

Irina Mossi “Just for One Night“

Stephen Bantu Biko
Biko was born to parents Mzimgayi Mathew and Alice Duman Biki in King William’s Town, in the present-day Eastern Cape province of South Africa. 
His father was a government clerk, while his mother did domestic work in surrounding white homes.[8] The third of four children, Biko grew up with his older sister Bukelwa; his older brother Kahya; and his younger sister Nobandile. In 1950, at the age of four, Biko suffered the loss of his father who was studying law.
 As a child, he attended Brownlee Primary School and Charles Morgan Higher Primary School.He was sent to Lovedale High School in 1964, a prestigious boarding school in Alice, Eastern Cape, where his older brother Kahya had previously been studying. 

During the Apartheid in South Africa, with no freedom of association protection for non-Afrikaner South African’s, Biko was expelled from Lovedale for his political views, and his brother arrested for his alleged association with Poqo (now known as the Azanian People’s Liberation Army). After being expelled, he then attended and later graduated from St. Francis College, a Roman Catholic institution in Mariannhill, Natal.
He studied to be a doctor at the University of Natal Medical School. Biko was a Xhosa. In addition to Xhosa, he spoke fluent English and fairly fluent Afrikaans.
Apartheid in South Africa
Events and projects
He was initially involved with the multiracial National Union of South African Students, but after he became convinced that Black, Indian and Coloured students needed an organization of their own, he helped found the South African Students’ Organisation (SASO), whose agenda included political self-reliance and the unification of university students in a “black consciousness.”
In 1968 Biko was elected its first president. SASO evolved into the influential Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Biko was also involved with the World Student Christian Federation.

Biko married Ntsiki Mashalaba in 1970. They had two children together: Nkosinathi, born in 1971, and Samora. He also had two children with Dr Mamphela Ramphele (a prominent activist within the BCM): a daughter, Lerato, born in 1974, who died of pneumonia when she was only two months old, and a son, Hlumelo, who was born in 1978, after Biko’s death.[1] Biko also had a daughter with Lorraine Tabane, named Motlatsi, born in May 1977.[citation needed]

In the early 1970s Biko became a key figure in The Durban Moment. 
In 1972 he was expelled from the University of Natal because of his political activities[15] and he became honorary president of the Black People’s Convention. He was banned by the apartheid regime in February 1973, meaning that he was not allowed to speak to more than one person at a time nor to speak in public, was restricted to the King William’s Town magisterial district, and could not write publicly or speak with the media. It was also forbidden to quote anything he said, including speeches or simple conversations.
When Biko was banned, his movement within the country was restricted to the Eastern Cape, where he was born. After returning there, he formed a number of grassroots organizations based on the notion of self-reliance: Zanempilo, the Zimele Trust Fund (which helped support former political prisoners and their families), Njwaxa Leather-Works Project and the Ginsberg Education Fund.
In spite of the repression of the apartheid government, Biko and the BCM played a significant role in organising the protests which culminated in the Soweto Uprising of 16 June 1976. In the
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